59. NATURE OF CHEMICAL BONDING (6)- Covalent Bonding(5)- VESPR model(3).

  Lone pairs – AXIAL OR EQUATORIAL POSITION? In the structures mentioned in earlier post, we have two positions, namely – Axial and equatorial. Equatorial positions lie on the equatorial plane – the plane with maximum number of atoms, which lies in the equatorial ( like equator , in the middle) position. Axial positions are…

58. NATURE OF CHEMICAL BONDING (5)- Covalent Bonding(4)- VESPR model(2).

In our last post we discussed the geometries of molecules without lone pair of electrons. We know that, in this model, the valence shell , is considered as a sphere with electron pairs  on the spherical surface, at maximum distance from one another. The maximum distance is necessary to make sure that there is minimum…

57. NATURE OF CHEMICAL BONDING (4)- Covalent Bonding(3)- VESPR model(1).

In the last two posts we discussed the VBT at length. We shall discuss its drawbacks and the hybridization theory in the next post.However, before proceeding to the hybridization theory , let us study the VSPER model first , which will help us understand the shape of the molecules explicitly. Valence shell electron pair repulsion model…

56. NATURE OF CHEMICAL BONDING (3)- Covalent Bonding(2)- VBT (2)

The Valence bond theory (VBT) is one of the theories which explains the formation of the covalent bond. It is based on the assumption that atomic orbitals overlap and form a bond.The electrons are shared between two atoms and the bond represents the region where the overlap occurs – the region with maximum electron density….

55. NATURE OF CHEMICAL BONDING (2)- Covalent Bonding(1)- VBT (1)

Bonding in molecules forms the basis of elucidating the structure of molecules , which in turn dictates the properties of substances.In this post we shall learn about second kind of primary bonds – The Covalent/Molecular Bonds. P2. THE COVALENT  BOND. This bond is due to sharing of electron pairs between atoms.The atoms involved have same/similar…

54. NATURE OF CHEMICAL BONDING (1) – Types of bonds, Ionic bonds.

Chemistry encompasses the study of elements and the various species ( compounds/ions/complexes etc) which are formed from these elements. Thus, it is imperative to understand how atoms are held together in molecules , what forces hold these atoms together and what factors are responsible of specific orientations of molecules. Let us begin our discussion on…

53.TYPES OF ORGANIC FORMULAE -(3) – Structural Formulae.

In this post we shall study how to draw structural formulae for different organic molecules. Understanding the structural representation of molecules is very important in our later course of study. We shall study in detail the stereochemistry( i.e spatial arrangement) of molecules in upcoming posts , and one can only grasp the topic if the…

52.TYPES OF ORGANIC FORMULAE – (2)- Molecular formula.

After having studied the empirical formula in the previous post , let us now move forward and learn what is a molecular formula for a molecule and how to calculate it.We shall solve some numerical problems later , before concluding this post. Molecular Formula – A chemical formula that shows the total number and kinds…