62. NATURE OF CHEMICAL BONDING (9)- Covalent Bonding(8)- Hybridization(3).

sp3 hybridization  The process of mixing of one s- orbital with three p- orbitals in an atom to form four sp3 hybrid orbitals of equivalent energy is called sp3 hybridization. EXAMPLE 1 – METHANE (CH4). In methane molecule , the central carbon atom is sp3 hybridized . Carbon (6)  in ground state 1s2 2s2 2p2 C(6)  1s2 2s1 2p3. One 2s electron promoted…

61. NATURE OF CHEMICAL BONDING (8)- Covalent Bonding(7)- Hybridization(2).

CONCEPT OF HYBRIDIZATION As we studied in the last post, Linus Pauling introduced an imaginary concept of ‘hybridization of atomic orbitals’  to explain the valancy and geometry of certain molecules. Hybridization essentially means mixing. This term is often used in biology , where animal and plant hybrids are created by cross breeding two different species ,…

59. NATURE OF CHEMICAL BONDING (6)- Covalent Bonding(5)- VESPR model(3).

  Lone pairs – AXIAL OR EQUATORIAL POSITION? In the structures mentioned in earlier post, we have two positions, namely – Axial and equatorial. Equatorial positions lie on the equatorial plane – the plane with maximum number of atoms, which lies in the equatorial ( like equator , in the middle) position. Axial positions are…

58. NATURE OF CHEMICAL BONDING (5)- Covalent Bonding(4)- VESPR model(2).

In our last post we discussed the geometries of molecules without lone pair of electrons. We know that, in this model, the valence shell , is considered as a sphere with electron pairs  on the spherical surface, at maximum distance from one another. The maximum distance is necessary to make sure that there is minimum…

57. NATURE OF CHEMICAL BONDING (4)- Covalent Bonding(3)- VESPR model(1).

In the last two posts we discussed the VBT at length. We shall discuss its drawbacks and the hybridization theory in the next post.However, before proceeding to the hybridization theory , let us study the VSPER model first , which will help us understand the shape of the molecules explicitly. Valence shell electron pair repulsion model…

56. NATURE OF CHEMICAL BONDING (3)- Covalent Bonding(2)- VBT (2)

The Valence bond theory (VBT) is one of the theories which explains the formation of the covalent bond. It is based on the assumption that atomic orbitals overlap and form a bond.The electrons are shared between two atoms and the bond represents the region where the overlap occurs – the region with maximum electron density….

55. NATURE OF CHEMICAL BONDING (2)- Covalent Bonding(1)- VBT (1)

Bonding in molecules forms the basis of elucidating the structure of molecules , which in turn dictates the properties of substances.In this post we shall learn about second kind of primary bonds – The Covalent/Molecular Bonds. P2. THE COVALENT  BOND. This bond is due to sharing of electron pairs between atoms.The atoms involved have same/similar…

54. NATURE OF CHEMICAL BONDING (1) – Types of bonds, Ionic bonds.

Chemistry encompasses the study of elements and the various species ( compounds/ions/complexes etc) which are formed from these elements. Thus, it is imperative to understand how atoms are held together in molecules , what forces hold these atoms together and what factors are responsible of specific orientations of molecules. Let us begin our discussion on…