68. NATURE OF CHEMICAL BONDING (15)- Covalent Bonding(14)- Bent’s rule(1).

In this post we are going to learn a comparatively new rule, proposed by Henry Bent.Henry Bent (1926-2015) was an American physical chemist who was a well-known professor at North Carolina State University and at University of Pittsburgh.The rule was stated recently  in 1961 and it primarily talks about how the various atoms/ligands are oriented in…

67. NATURE OF CHEMICAL BONDING (14)- Covalent Bonding(13)- sp3d3 Hybridization(8).

Sp3d3 hybridization The process of mixing of one s- orbital ,three p- orbitals and three d-orbitals in an atom to form seven sp3  d3 hybrid orbitals of equivalent energy is called sp3 d3 hybridization. EXAMPLE  1 – IODINE HEPTAFLUORIDE (IF7) Iodine is a p-block element and it has 7 valence electrons.Both iodine and fluorine are halogens and thus iodine…

66. NATURE OF CHEMICAL BONDING (13)- Covalent Bonding(12)- sp3d2 Hybridization(7).

sp3d2 hybridization. The process of mixing of one s- orbital ,three p- orbitals and two d-orbital in an atom to form six sp3  d2 hybrid orbitals of equivalent energy is called sp3 d2 hybridization. EXAMPLE – SULPHUR HEXACHLORIDE (SF6) In the last post we studied the hybridization in SF4 molecule. The central sulphur atom was sp3d hybridized. It had a lone pair of electrons. […]

65. NATURE OF CHEMICAL BONDING (12)- Covalent Bonding(11)- sp3d Hybridization(6).

In the last few posts we studied about the most common types of hybridization namely –sp3, sp2 and sp hybridization. These are exhibited predominantly by elements in second period of the periodic table(e.g. Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Beryllium etc).    However, the concept of hybridization can be extended to the p- block elements(e.g.- Suphur, Phosphorous, Iodine…

64. NATURE OF CHEMICAL BONDING (11)- Covalent Bonding(10)- sp Hybridization(5).

sp hybridization . The process of mixing of one s- orbital with one p- orbital in an atom to form two sp hybrid orbitals of equivalent energy is called sp hybridization. EXAMPLE  – ACETYⅬENE / ETHYNE  In acetylene molecule, the central carbon atom is sp hybridized. Carbon (6)   1s2 2s2 2p2→ Ground state.  C(6)  1s2 2s1 2p3 → One 2s electron is promoted to 2p orbital. Then, 2s…

63. NATURE OF CHEMICAL BONDING (10)- Covalent Bonding(9)- sp2 Hybridization(4).

sp2 hybridization . The process of mixing of one s- orbital with two p- orbitals in an atom to form three sp2 hybrid orbitals of equivalent energy is called sp2 hybridization.   EXAMPLE  – ETHYⅬENE / ETHENE  In ethene molecule, the central carbon atom is sp2 hybridized. Carbon (6)  in ground state 1s2 2s2 2p2 One 2s electron is promoted to 2p orbital→ C(6)  1s2 2s1 2p3 …

62. NATURE OF CHEMICAL BONDING (9)- Covalent Bonding(8)- sp3 Hybridization(3).

sp3 hybridization  The process of mixing of one s- orbital with three p- orbitals in an atom to form four sp3 hybrid orbitals of equivalent energy is called sp3 hybridization. EXAMPLE 1 – METHANE (CH4). We generally draw the structure of methane as follows – This structure would imply that methane has bond angles of 90º and 180º and…

61. NATURE OF CHEMICAL BONDING (8)- Covalent Bonding(7)- Hybridization(2).

CONCEPT OF HYBRIDIZATION As we studied in the last post, Linus Pauling introduced an imaginary concept of ‘hybridization of atomic orbitals’  to explain the valancy and geometry of certain molecules. Hybridization essentially means mixing. This term is often used in biology , where animal and plant hybrids are created by cross breeding two different species ,…